The focus of Nader Shaikh’s research has been on the diagnosis and treatment of frequently occurring childhood infections. (urinary tract infection, otitis media and sinusitis). With regards to urinary tract infections (UTIs), Nader Shaikh has served as a PI on several large NIDDK-funded studies (STARRs, Biomarkers) examining the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs. Shaikh has overseen enrollment of >600 children with a UTI over the past 5 years. Shaikh is currently working on a study (Biomarkers for Urinary tract Infection and pyelonephritis, RO1, NIDDK) aimed at the (a) identification of urinary markers that are more accurate than the currently available point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of UTI, and (b) identification of novel urinary biomarkers for pyelonephritis. With regards to otitis media, Dr. Shaikh has served as a PI on 6 studies focused on establishing the validity and reliability of a parent-reported outcome measure that can be used severity of symptoms of acute otitis media. Dr. Shaikh has also served as co-investigator on several large NIAID trials (antibiotics vs. placebo, shortened duration of antimicrobial therapy, efficacy of tympanostomy tubes). These two trials form the basis for the current treatment approach to acute otitis media. With regards to acute sinusitis, Dr. Shaikh is currently the co-PI of the largest placebo-controlled randomized trial in children to date. He has also conducted several studies on the signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis in children.