Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B: A key mediator and an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases.

01 Jul 2020
Tsou PS, Sawalha AH

The glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB, also known as osteoactivin) is highly expressed in many cell types and regulates the homeostasis in various tissues. In different physiological contexts, it functions as a melanosome-associated protein, membrane-bound surface receptor, soluble ligand, or adhesion molecule. Therefore, GPNMB is involved in cell differentiation, migration, inflammation, metabolism, and neuroprotection. Because of its various involvement in different physiological conditions, GPNMB has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and more recently immune-mediated diseases. This review summarizes the regulation and function of GPNMB in normal physiology, and discusses the involvement of GPNMB in disease conditions with a particular focus on its potential role and therapeutic implications in autoimmunity.